Mean monthly total shortwave radiation on a sloping surface modelled using the 1" DEM-S - 1" tiles

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Mean monthly total shortwave radiation on a sloping surface modelled using the 1" DEM-S - 1" tiles

Mean monthly solar radiation was modelled across Australia using topography from the 1 arcsecond resolution SRTM-derived DEM-S and climatic and land surface data. The SRAD model (Wilson and Gallant, 2000) was used to derive: • Incoming short-wave radiation on a sloping surface • Short-wave radiation ratio (shortwave on sloping surface / s... more

Environmental Management Land Capability and Soil Degradation Landscape Ecology Natural Resource Management Soil Sciences not elsewhere classified

11 Feb 2000

22 Feb 2000

CSIRO Enquiries
1300 363 400

Monthly shortwave radiation LAND Topography Models ECOLOGY Landscape TERN_Soils Land Surface Australia


1 arcsecond resolution mosaics


3 arcsecond resolution mosaics



Source data 1. 1 arcsecond SRTM-derived Smoothed Digital Elevation Model (DEM-S; ANZCW0703014016) 2. Aspect derived from the 1 arcsecond SRTM DEM-S 3. Slope derived from the 1 arcsecond SRTM DEM-S 4. Monthly cloud cover fraction (Jovanovic et al., 2011) 5. Monthly albedo derived from AVHRR (Donohue et al., 2010) 6. Monthly minimum and maximum air temperature (Bureau of Meteorology) 7. Monthly vapour pressure (Bureau of Meteorology) 8. Monthly fractional cover (Donohue et al., 2010) 9. Monthly black-sky and white-sky albedo from MODIS (MCD43A3, B3) (Paget and King, 2008; NASA LP DAAC, 2013) 10. Measurements of daily sunshine hours, 9 am and 3pm cloud cover, and daily solar radiation from meteorological stations around Australia (Bureau of Meteorology) Solar radiation model Solar radiation was calculated using the SRAD model (Wilson and Gallant, 2000), which accounts for: Annual variations in sun-earth distance Solar geometry based on latitude and time of year The orientation of the land surface relative to the sun Shadowing by surrounding topography Clear-sky and cloud transmittance Sunshine fraction (cloud-free fraction of the day) in morning and afternoon Surface albedo The effects of surface temperature on outgoing long-wave radiation, which is modulated by incoming radiation and moderated by vegetation cover Atmospheric emissivity based on vapour pressure All input parameters were long-term averages for each month, i.e., monthly climatologies of cloud cover, air temperature, vapour pressure, fractional cover, AVHRR albedo and MODIS albedo. Circumsolar coefficient was fixed both spatially and temporally at 0.25, while clear sky atmospheric transmissivity and cloud transmittance were varied. Transmittance measures the fraction of radiation passing through a material (air or clouds in this case), while transmissivity measures that fraction for a specified amount of material. SRAD uses a transmittance parameter for cloud, representing an average of all cloud types during cloudy periods, and a transmissivity parameter for clear sky so that the transmittance can vary with the position of the sun in the sky and hence the thickness of atmosphere that radiation passes through on its way to the ground. The clear sky transmissivity τ and cloud transmittance β were calibrated using observed daily radiation and sunshine hours. References Donohue R. J., McVicar T. R. and Roderick M. L. (2010a). Assessing the ability of potential evaporation formulations to capture the dynamics in evaporative demand within a changing climate. Journal of Hydrology, 386, 186-197, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.020. Donohue, R. J., T. R. McVicar, L. Lingtao, and M. L. Roderick (2010b). A data resource for analysing dynamics in Australian ecohydrological conditions, Austral Ecol, 35, 593–594, doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2010.02144.x. Erbs, D. G., S. A. Klein, and J. A. Duffie (1982), Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly-average global radiation, Solar Energy, 28(4), 293-302. Jovanovic, B., Collins, D., Braganza, K., Jakob, D. and Jones, D.A. (2011). A high-quality monthly total cloud amount dataset for Australia. Climatic Change, 108, 485-517. NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) (2013). MCD43A3, B3. USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota Paget, M.J. and King, E.A. (2008). MODIS Land data sets for the Australian region. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Internal Report No. 004. Wilson, J.P. and Gallant, J.C. (2000) Secondary topographic attributes, chapter 4 in Wilson, J.P. and Gallant, J.C. Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Access to this data has been made possible by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN), supported by the Australian Government through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and the Super Science Initiative.

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

CSIRO (Australia)

Gallant, John; Austin, Jenet; Van Niel, Tom (2014): Mean monthly total shortwave radiation on a sloping surface modelled using the 1" DEM-S - 1" tiles. v3. CSIRO. Data Collection.

All Rights (including copyright) CSIRO 2014.

The metadata and files (if any) are available to the public.

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Location Details

10°0′0″ S

44°0′0″ S

154°0′0″ E

113°0′0″ E


More about this Collection

John Gallant

Terrain Analysis Research Team Leader

0 m

0 m





About this Project

1181.2 TERN Facility No9 InfoGrid GRUNDY

The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia is a comprehensive fine spatial resolution grid of functional soil attributes and key landscape features across Australia. The landscape attributes are derived from the data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, whilst the soil attribute surfaces are modelled from existing soils information. The... more

John Gallant

SRAD solar radiation surfaces

Mean monthly solar radiation surfaces produced using the SRAD model and the 1 second resolution SRTM DEM-S


John Gallant

Jenet Austin

Tom Van Niel

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