Climate Victoria: Precipitation (9 second, approx. 250 m)

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About this Collection

Climate Victoria: Precipitation (9 second, approx. 250 m)

Daily (1981-2019), monthly (1981-2019) and monthly mean (1981-2010) surfaces of precipitation across Victoria at a spatial resolution of 9 seconds (approx. 250 m).

Climatology (excl. Climate Change Processes)

01 Jan 1981

31 Dec 2019

Stephen Stewart

climate weather daily monthly climate normals precipitation interpolation victoria


Precipitation climate normals (1981-2010) published in: Fedrigo, M. Stewart, S.B. Roxburgh, S.H. Kasel, S. Bennett, L.T. Vickers, H. Nitschke, C.R. 2019. Predictive Ecosystem Mapping of South-Eastern Australian Temperate Forests Using Lidar-Derived Structural Profiles and Species Distribution Models. Remote Sens. 11, 93.


A) Data modelling: 1. Weather station observations collected by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology were obtained via the SILO patched point dataset (, followed by the removal of all interpolated records. 2. Climate normals representing the 1981-2010 reference period were calculated for each weather station. A regression patching procedure (Hopkinson et al. 2012) was used to correct for biases arising due to differences in record length where possible. 3. Climate normals for each month were interpolated using trivariate splines (latitude, longitude and elevation as spline variables) using a DEM smoothed (Gaussian filter with a standard deviation of 10 and a search radius of 0.0825°, optimised using cross validation) to account for the lack of strong correlation between elevation and precipitation at short distances (Hutchinson 1998; Sharples et al. 2005). All data was interpolated using ANUSPLIN 4.4 (Hutchinson & Xu 2013). 4. Monthly surfaces were interpolated directly from monthly station records using the methods described in step 3. 5. Daily anomalies were calculated as a proportion of monthly precipitation, and interpolated with full spline dependence on latitude and longitude. 6. Interpolated anomalies (constrained to values between 0 and 1) were multiplied by monthly precipitation to obtain the final daily surfaces. B) Spatial data inputs: 1. Fenner School of Environment and Society and Geoscience Australia. 2008. GEODATA 9 Second Digital Elevation Model (DEM-9S) Version 3. C) Model performance: Accuracy assessment was conducted with leave-one-out cross validation. Mean monthly precipitation: RMSE = 7.65 mm (14.0% relative to mean) Monthly precipitation: RMSE = 13.12 mm (24.7% relative to mean) Daily precipitation: RMSE = 2.21 mm (26.3% relative to mean)

The research was supported by the Melbourne Research Scholarship (University of Melbourne) with additional funding provided by the State of Victoria Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (DELWP) through the Integrated Forest Ecosystem Research (iFER) program.

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

CSIRO (Australia), The University of Melbourne (Australia)

Stewart, Stephen; Fedrigo, Melissa; Roxburgh, Stephen; Kasel, Sabine; Nitschke, Craig (2020): Climate Victoria: Precipitation (9 second, approx. 250 m). v3. CSIRO. Data Collection.

All Rights (including copyright) CSIRO, The University of Melbourne 2020.

The metadata and files (if any) are available to the public.

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Location Details

33°58′48″ S

39°9′36″ S

149°58′39″ E

140°57′36″ E


About this Project


Stephen Stewart

Melissa Fedrigo

Stephen Roxburgh

Sabine Kasel

Craig Nitschke

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