9 second substrate rasters for continental modelling of Australia's biodiversity patterns

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About this Collection

9 second substrate rasters for continental modelling of Australia's biodiversity patterns

These data provide consistent rasterised layers of edaphic (physical and chemical conditions of the soil) and land surface physiography (landform and geomorphology) variables hypothesised to explain spatial patterns in biological diversity at continental scales for immediate use with statistical modelling tools. These data are intended to be used a... more

Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience not elsewhere classified

15 Jan 2010

14 Dec 2012

Kristen Williams

Soil geology terrain weathering index national grids 9-second


0.01 degree stack of edaphic and physiographic layers for continental analysis of biodiversity pattern, version 1.0



Rasterised environmental attributes representing soil conditions, landform and geomorphology were compiled from a wide range of data sources. Each dataset was pre-processed to match a 9-second spatial data/nodata mask for Australia derived from the V3, 9-second digital elevation model (Hutchinson et al. 2008; ANU and Geoscience Australia). The layers were expanded to fill voids (NODATA values) and more fully capture the land surface of Australia. This is not the ideal way to account for these areas, but adequate pending more thorough updates in the future. Layers were expanded using the DATA option of the FOCALMEAN command with a CIRCLE expand radius of 2 cells. The focal mean command expands data values into nodata areas using the mean value of nearby cells. The focal mean command changes all the values in the original grid, so the cell values in the expanded areas are put back onto the original grids. The 2-cell expansion is applied iteratively until all NODATA values or voids are filled, and an expanded coastline mask is applied to limit the coast expansion. For ordered data derived from soil map classifications, the NEAREST value was used. Data were subsequently masked to consistently define data/nodata values across all layers in the stack (dataset MASK0). They are supplied in ArcGIS floating-grid formats in the GDA94 geographic reference system. The filling of lakes and voids may have implications for communication or interpretation of subsequent terrestrial biodiversity models using these data, where taxa are geographically predicted to occur where they would not be expected to be found. Outputs should therefore be masked to reinstate coastline and lakes, as needed.

The data derive from a number of different sources, each source must be attributed separately. For a general overview of the framework used to choose source variables, see Williams KJ, Belbin L, Austin MP, Stein J, Ferrier S (2012) Which environmental variables should I use in my biodiversity model? Int. J Geog. Info. Sci., 26(11): 2009-2047, DOI:10.1080/13658816.2012.698015 Soil mapping data sources: Atlas of Australian soils: National grids: For other data sources see the supporting attachments. Each source specifies its own specific acknowledgement. For some datasets, the 1km version metadata is included which provides more detail about the data.

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

Australian Soil Resource Information System (Australia), Geoscience Australia (Australia), CSIRO (Australia), CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences (Australia), CSIRO Land and Water (Australia), Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (Australia)

CSIRO; Williams, Kristen; Wilson, Peter; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael; Gallant, John; Austin, Jenet; Dowling, Trevor; Wilford, John; Chen, Charlie; McKenzie, Neil; De Vries, Robert; Jacquier, David; Storey, Randal (2013): 9 second substrate rasters for continental modelling of Australia's biodiversity patterns. v3. CSIRO. Data Collection.

All Rights (including copyright) Australian Soil Resource Information System, Geoscience Australia, CSIRO, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, CSIRO Land and Water 2013.

The metadata and files (if any) are available to the public.

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Location Details

8°0′0″ S

43°44′33″ S

154°0′0″ E

112°54′0″ E


More about this Collection

Kristen Williams

Senior Research Scienist





About this Project

Closed DIISR ALA Exp-Geosptl Data Mngmnt

Compilation of 9-second climate and substrate layers for Australia and draft metadata to be incorporated into the ALA spatial portal for use with biological collections.

Lee Belbin


Kristen Williams

Peter Wilson

Raphael Viscarra Rossel

John Gallant

Jenet Austin

Trevor Dowling

John Wilford

Charlie Chen

Neil McKenzie

Robert De Vries

David Jacquier

Randal Storey

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